1. C
    1. Checking Daemon
      Exercises System
    2. Celery Worker
      Checking Daemon
    3. Content Graph
      Content Courses
    4. Content Page
    5. Course
    6. Course Instance
    7. Course Prefix
      Courses System
  2. E
    1. Embedded Content
      Content Exercises
    2. Enrollment
      Courses System
  3. F
    1. Feedback
      Content Feedback
    2. File
    3. File Upload Exercise
    4. Front Page
      Content Courses
  4. H
    1. Hint
  5. I
    1. Instance
      Course Instance
    2. Image
  6. L
    1. Lecture Page
    2. Legacy Checker
  7. M
    1. Media File
    2. Markup
    3. Media
  8. P
    1. PySenpai
  9. R
    1. Regex
    2. Repeated Exercise Generator
    3. Responsible Teacher
      Courses System
    4. Revision
  10. S
    1. Slug
    2. Staff
      Courses System
    3. Statistics
  11. T
    1. Teacher Toolbox
    2. Term
    3. Textfield Exercise
    4. Triggerable Highlight
Completed: / exercises

Content Markup Reference

in Lovelace is divided into two categories: stand-alone and inline. Stand-alone markup always needs to be on its own separate line while inline markup can be contained within a paragraph.

Inline Markup


'''bold text'''
''italic text''
!!!marked text!!!
 {{{inline code snippet}}}
 {{{#!python "inline code snippet with syntax highlight (python)"}}}
`K` `e` `y` `s`

Inline Links

Inline links can point to within-course-instance addresses by page
or to external addresses by full URL. When linking internally, the linked page must be within the same course instance - links between different course instances have to use full URL.
[[lovelacen-markup-opas|link to this page]]
[[https://docs.python.org/3/|link to Python 3 documentation]]

Triggerable Highlights

Triggerable highlights
are a way of drawing student attention to marked passages in the text. They can be activated by
file upload exercises
when they return the evaluation. Currently they are the only type of exercise that support these highlights.
This exercise demonstrates the use of triggerable highlights. You can mark sections within paragraphs using the following markup:
[!hint=sample-highlight!]You can mark sections within paragraphs using the following markup[!hint!]
When a checking program returns an evaluation with triggers, all sections within the entire page that have matching trigger names will be highlighted. In this example sample-highlight is the trigger name.
Return a text file.
Warning: You have not logged in. You cannot answer.
Fun fact: you can even highlight passages that are on the parent page of the exercise


You can mark words to trigger a
definition popup when the mouse cursor is hovered over. The syntax for doing that is:
Where the term name is case sensitive and can contain spaces. The term name is also shown in the course's term bank. When you include a term within a content page, it must exist before saving the content page. You can find more information about managing terms by following the link in the term popup.

Stand-alone Markup


Bulleted lists without numbering:
* bulleted item
** bulleted item indented more
* second bulleted item
** another indented item
Bulleted lists with numbering use # instead:
# bulleted item
## bulleted item indented more
# second bulleted item
## another indented item
  1. bulleted item
    1. bulleted item indented more
  2. second bulleted item
    1. another indented item

Code Blocks

You can create a code block by enclosing lines between curly braces
This text is shown as 
a code block with 
Just like inline code snippets, you can also define syntax highlighting (the syntax to do so is different)
def a_function(param):
    This function does nothing
which would give a nice result like so:
def a_function(param):
    This function does nothing

Embedded Files

Code blocks are useful for short snippets of code, but if you have bigger examples it's better to upload them separately and then embed their contents. This way they also come with a handy download link. The syntax to embed a
And the result:
there is some
  text in this
Syntax highlighting is guessed from the file. If you instead want to just provide some files for students to download, you can add the link_only attribute:
This will only show the title bar and the download link:
In all cases the file must exist when the content pages is saved.

Embedded Pages

is generally used for gathering exercises into pages. The syntax is simple, and doesn't currently have any additional options. This embed was used above to include the triggerable highlight demo exercise.
The referred page must exist when you save your content.

Embedded Scripts

You can embed javascript into content pages using iframes. You can either write the script into the iframe HTML, or you can include script files separately. These files should be created as
media files
, and must exist already. The syntax to embed an iframe with javascript is a bit wieldy:
The width and height parameters define the size of the iframe. In this example, the javascript is divided into several files, and they are brought in with the include parameter, where each include file is separated by commas. The syntax for includes has three parts: where in the HTML to put the include (usually "head"), what's the type (usually "script" or "css"), and finally the media file handle. Note that parameters must always be given in this order.

Embedded Videos

You can also embed videos to iframes (technically you can do this for any external HTML). Videos are managed as media content in Lovelace, so you just embed the media object:
Parameters must be given in this order. Once again the referred video link media object must exist.


Headings are marked with = characters on both sides of the heading, where number of = characters defines the heading level.
​= Level 1 Heading =

​== Level 2 Heading ==

​=== Level 3 Heading ===

​==== Level 4 Heading ====

​===== Level 5 Heading =====

​====== Level 6 Heading ======
Headings from a page (including embedded pages) will also be parsed into the page index.


are embedded similarly to files and pages. Images are managed as media objects, and are referenced by the image handle.
<!image=llguide-sleeping-shiba|alt=Shibe at slep|caption=Hard at work|align=left>
Shibe at slep
Hard at work
All of the parameters are optional, but if given must follow this order. The referenced image must exist.




A table row can be defined by || at the beginning, end and between columns. Subsequent rows will automatically be enclosed within the same table.
Name Grade
Eeyore 1.0
Winnie 2.0
Tigger 5.0


Lovelace uses KaTeX for mathematic notation. You can use <math> tags to enclose a formula. See KaTeX functions reference for more information about how to write mathematical notation.
x = \dfrac{-b \pm \sqrt{b^2 - 4ac}}{2a}
x = \dfrac{-b \pm \sqrt{b^2 - 4ac}}{2a}
The checking daemon is a separate multi-threaded program that is invoked whenever Lovelace needs to execute code on the command line. The most common use case is to evaluate student programs by running checking programs. When a task is sent to the checker daemon, copies of all required files are put into a temporary directory where the test will then run. The daemon also does necessary security operations to prevent malicious code from doing any actual harm.
Content graphs are objects that connect content pages to a course instance's table of contents. Content graphs have several context attributes which define how the content is linked to this particular course instance. A content graph's ordinal number and parent node affect how it is displayed in the table of contents. You can also set a deadline which will be applied to all exercises contained within the linked content page. Content graphs also define which revision of the content to show - this is used when courses are archived.
In Lovelace, content page refers to learning objects that have text content written using a markup language. All types of content pages are treated similarly inside the system and they are interchangeable. Content pages include lecture pages, and all exercise types.
  1. Description
  2. Relations
In Lovelace, course refers to an abstract root course, not any specific instance of instruction. Courses are used for tying together actual instance of instruction (called course instances in Lovelace). In that sense they are like courses in the study guide, while course instances are like courses in WebOodi. The most important attrbutes of a course are its responsible teacher and its staff group - these define which users have access to edit content that is linked to the course.
  1. Description
  2. Relations
  3. Cloning and Archiving
In Lovelace, a course instance refers to an actual instace of instruction of a course. It's comparable to a course in WebOodi. Students can enroll to a course instance. Almost everything is managed by instance - student enrollments, learning objects, student answers, feedback etc. This way teachers can easily treat each instance of instruction separately. Course instances can also be archived through a process called freezing.
Course prefixes are recommended because content page and media names in Lovelace are unique across all courses. You should decide a prefix for each course and use that for all learning objects that are not included in the course table of contents. The prefix will also make it easier to manage learning objects of multiple courses - especially for your friendly superuser who sees everyhing in the admin interface...
  1. Description
  2. Examples
Embedded content refers to learning objects that have been embedded to other learning objects through links written in the content of the parent object. Embedded content can be other content pages or media. When saving a content page, all embedded objects that are linked must exist. A link to embedded content is a reference that ties together course instance, embedded content and the parent content.
Enrollment is the method which connects students to course instances. All students taking a course should enroll to it. Enrollment is used for course scoring and (once implemented) access to course content. Enrollments are either automatically accepted, or need to be accepted through the enrollment management interface.
Lovelace has a built-in feedback system. You can attach any number of feedback questions to any content page, allowing you to get either targeted feedback about single exercises, or more general feedback about entire lecture pages. Unlike almost everything else, feedback questions are currently not owned by any particular course. However, feedback answers are always tied to the page the feedback is for, and also to the course instance where the feedback was given.
  1. Description
  2. Archiving
  3. Embedding
In Lovelace file normally refers to a media file, managed under Files in the admin site. A file has a handle, actual file contents (in both languages) and a download name. The file handle is how the file is referened throughout the system. If a media file is modified by uploading a new version of the file, all references will by default fetch the latest version. The download name is the name that is displayed as the file header when it's embedded, and also as the default name in the download dialog. Files are linked to content through reference objects - one reference per course instance.
Media files are currently stored in the public media folder along with images - they can be addressed directly via URL.
  1. Description
  2. Legacy Checkers
File upload exercises are at the heart of Lovelace. They are exercises where students return one or more code files that are then evaluated by a checking program. File upload exercises can be evaluated with anything that can be run from the Linux command line, but usually a bit more sophisticated tools should be used (e.g. PySenpai). File upload exercises have a JSON format for evaluations returned by checking programs. This evaluation can include messages, hints and highlight triggers - these will ideally help the student figure out problems with their code.
Front page of a course instance is shown at the instance's index page, below the course table of contents. Front page is linked to a course instance just like any other page, but it uses the special ordinar number of 0 which excludes it from the table of contents. Any page can act as the course front page.
Hints are messages that are displayed to students in various cases of answering incorrectly. Hints can be given upon making incorrect choices in choice-type exercises, and they can also be given after a certain number of attempts. In textfield exercises you can define any number of catches for incorrect answers, and attach hints to each. Hints are shown in a hint box in the exercise layout - this box will become visible if there is at least one hint to show.
  1. Description
  2. Archiving
  3. Embedding
Images in Lovelace are managed as media objects similar to files. They have a handle that is used for referencing, and the file itself separately. Images should be always included by using reference. This way if the image is updated, all references to it always show the latest version.
Images stored on disc are accessible directly through URL.
Lecture pages are content pages that do not have any exercise capabilities attached to them. A course instance's table of contents usually consists entirely of lecture pages. Other types of content pages (i.e. exercises) are usually embedded within lecture pages.
Legacy checker is a name for checkers that were used in previous versions of Lovelace and its predecessor Raippa. They test the student submission against a reference, comparing their outputs. If the outputs match (exactly), the submission passes. Otherwise differences in output are highlighted. It is possible to use wrapper programs to alter the outputs, or output different things (e.g. testing return values of individual functions). Legacy checkers should generally be avoided because they are very limiting and often frustrating for students. Legacy checking is still occasionally useful for comparing compiler outputs etc.
Lovelace uses its own wiki style markup for writing content. Beyond basic formatting features, the markup is also used to embed content pages and media, mark highlightable sections in text and create hover-activated term definition popups.
In Lovelace, media refers to embeddable files etc. These come in there categories: images, files and video links. Like content pages, media objects are managed by reference using handles. Unlike other types of files, media files are publicly accessible to anyone who can guess the URL.
PySenpai is a library/framework for creating file upload exercise checking programs. It uses a callback-based architecture to create a consistent and highly customizable testing process. On the one hand it provides reasonable defaults for basic checking programs making them relatively straightforward to implement. On the other hand it also supports much more complex checking programs. Currently PySenpai supports Python, C, Y86 Assembly and Matlab.
Regular expression's are a necessary evil in creating textfield and repeated template exercises. Lovelace uses Python regular expressions in single line mode.
A generator acts as a backend for repeated template exercises, and provides the random values and their corresponding answers to the frontend. Generators can be written in any programming language that can be executed on the Lovelace server. Generators need to return a JSON document by printing it to stdout.
Responsible teacher is the primary teacher in charge of a course. Certain actions are available only to responsible teachers. These actions include managing enrollments and course instances.
Lovelace uses Django Reversion to keep track of version history for all learning objects. This can be sometimes useful if you need to restore a previous version after mucking something up. However the primary purpose is to have access to historical copies of learning objects for archiving purposes. When a course instance is archived, it uses the revision attribute of all its references to set which historical version should be fetched when the learning object is shown. Student answers also include the revision number of the exercise that was active at the time of saving the answer.
Slug is the lingo word for names used in urls. Slugs are automatically generated for courses, course instances and content pages. Slugs are all-lowercase with all non-alphanumeric characters replaced with dashes. Similar naming scheme is recommended for other types of learning objects as well although they do not use generated slugs.
Staff members are basically your TAs. Staff members can see pages hidden from normal users and they can edit and create content (within the confines of the courses they have been assigned to). They can also view answer statistics and evaluate student answers in manually evaluated exercises. Staff members are assigned to courses via staff group.
Lovelace has answer statistics for all exercises. Statistics are collected per instance, and allow you to review how many times an exercise has been answered, what's the success rate etc. All of this can be helpful in identifying where students either have difficulties, or the exercise itself is badly designed. For some types of exercises, there's also more detailed information about answers that have been given. Statistics can be accessed from the left hand toolbox for each exercise.
Teacher toolbox is located on the left hand side of each exercise. It has options to view statistcs, view feedback about the exercise and edit the exercise. For file upload exercises there is also an option to download all answers as a zip file. Do note that this takes some time.
  1. Description
  2. Examples
Terms are keywords that are linked to descriptions within your course. They will be collected into the course term bank, and the keyword can also be used to make term hint popups on any content page. Terms can include multiple tabs and links to pages that are relevant to the term. For instance, this term has a tab for examples, and a link to the page about terms.
Textfield exercises are exercises where the student gives their answer by writing into a text box. This answer is evaluated against predefined answers that can be either correct (accepting the exercise) or incorrect (giving a related hint). Almost always these answers are defined as regular expressions - exact matching is simply far too strict.
  1. Description
  2. Markup
  3. Triggering
Triggerable highlights can be used in content pages to mark passages that can be highlighted by triggers from file upload exercise evaluation responses. When a highlight is triggered the passage will be highlighted. This feature is useful for drawing student attention to things they may have missed. Exercises can trigger highlights in their own description, or in their parent page. It is usually a good idea to use exercise specific prefixes for highlight trigger names.