Termbank
  1. C
    1. Checking Daemon
      Exercises System
    2. Celery Worker
      Checking Daemon
    3. Content Graph
      Content Courses
    4. Content Page
      Content
    5. Course
      Courses
    6. Course Instance
      Courses
    7. Course Prefix
      Courses System
  2. E
    1. Embedded Content
      Content Exercises
    2. Enrollment
      Courses System
  3. F
    1. Feedback
      Content Feedback
    2. File
      Media
    3. File Upload Exercise
      Exercises
    4. Front Page
      Content Courses
  4. H
    1. Hint
      Exercises
  5. I
    1. Instance
      Course Instance
    2. Image
      Media
  6. L
    1. Lecture Page
      Content
    2. Legacy Checker
  7. M
    1. Media File
      File
    2. Markup
      Content
    3. Media
      Media
  8. P
    1. PySenpai
  9. R
    1. Regex
    2. Repeated Exercise Generator
    3. Responsible Teacher
      Courses System
    4. Revision
      System
  10. S
    1. Slug
      System
    2. Staff
      Courses System
    3. Statistics
      Exercises
  11. T
    1. Teacher Toolbox
      System
    2. Term
      Content
    3. Textfield Exercise
    4. Triggerable Highlight
      Exercises
Completed: / exercises

PySenpai Message Reference

This page of the guide describes all messages that are built into PySenpai and its extensions. It should be useful for seeing what PySenpai tells the student by default in each situation. It also includes information about what values are given to each message as format keyword arguments. Messages are presented in test sequence order.
Format parameters marked as DEPRECATED are retained but should not be used in new checkers. This is mostly because they provide information that is included in other messages by default in the current version. They are retained to avoid breaking existing checkers that may have custom messages relying on the existence of these parameters.

Core Messages

Messages that are defined in the core module of PySenpai.

Import Messages

These are the messages used by load_module.

LoadingModule

This message is printed into the evaluation log at the start of the module loading process.

MissingFileExtension

Used if the filename of the returned file does not have the .py file extension.

BadModuleName

Used if the name contains characters that are not allowed in Python module names (i.e. makes it unimportable with a normal import statement).

SystemModuleName

Used if the student returned a module with the same name as a Python standard library module.

GenericErrorMsg

Used if no exception-specific message is found.

ImportError

Used if there's an import error while trying to load the student module.

EOFError

Used if there's an EOF error while trying to load the student module. The error message is written from the perspective that the most likely cause is the use of input in a way that goes against the exercise description.

SystemExit

Used if the student code has a forced exit (i.e. exit, sys.exit or similar).

SyntaxError

Used if the student module cannot be imported due to a syntax error. Friendly reminds the student to test the code on their own computer.

IndentationError

Used if the student module cannot be imported due to an indentation error. Friendly reminds the student to test the code on their own computer.

NameError

Used if there's a name error when importing the student module. The default message assumes that this is due to handling control structures poorly. At least historically this is most commonly encountered when the student code doesn't take "do nothing" inputs into account properly.

PrintExcLine

Used whenever there is an exception while loading the module. Prints the line number and line content of the last line that was involved in the exception within the student's code file. Shows a question mark as the line number if PySenpai is unable to find any line within the student code from the stack trace of the exception.

PrintInputVector

Used to show the inputs to the student if there was an exception while importing the code. Is not shown if the input vector is empty.

DisallowedOutput

Used if the allow_ouput keyword argument to load_module is set to False (default is True) and the student code prints anything into stdout.

PrintStudentOutput

Shows the full output of the student code if hide_output keyword argument to load_module is set to False (default is True).

Function Test Messages

These messages are used by test_function

FunctionName

Used at the beginning of testing just to let the student know which function is being tested.

IsNotFunction

Used if the function name doesn't belong to a function. Most likely the student has repurposed the function name in their main code accidentally.

GenericErrorMsg

Used if no exception-specific message is found.

TypeError

Used as the default TypeError message, assuming that the type error is caused by mismatch in the number of arguments and parameters.

AttributeError

Used as the default AttributeError message, assuming that the function was not found with getattr.

EOFError

Used as the default EOFError message, assuming that the student function consumed more inputs than were put into stdin.

SystemExit

Used if the student function uses any forceful method to close the program mid-execution.

PrintExcLine

Used whenever there is an exception while calling the function. Prints the line number and line content of the last line that was involved in the exception within the student's code file. Shows a question mark as the line number if PySenpai is unable to find any line within the student code from the stack trace of the exception.

PrintTestVector

Shows how the student function was called during the test. The name is historical - it used to only show the arguments, but the call is clearer and easier for the student to copy into their own code. It can be repurposed back to its old form by using the args keyword instead of call.

PrintInputVector

Used to show the inputs to the student if there were any.

PrintStudentOutput

Shows the full output of the student code if hide_output keyword argument to test_function is set to False (default is True).

OutputParseError

Used if the output parser callback deems the student function's output unparseable and wants to abort the test case.

OutputPatternInfo

Used along with output parse error. Can be overridden to give the student details about what kinds of things the output parser is looking for.

CorrectResult

Message shown when the function passes validation.

IncorrectResult

Default message for failed validation. Mostly used with default validators. If the validator uses custom assert messages, this is replaced by the message for the first failed assert.

PrintStudentResult

Used after validation regardless of outcome. Shows what the student function's result was.

PrintReference

Used if the student result was incorrect. Shows the reference result, i.e. what the stundet function should have produced.

AdditionalTests

Printed if there is at least one diagnosis to do.

RepeatingResult

If test_recurrence is set to True (which is the default), this message is used when the student function produces the same result twice in row.

AdditionalInfo

This is used to precede messages from information functions if any have been given to the test.

CorrectMessage

If a message_validator is used in the test, this message is used if the validator passes.

IncorrectMessage

If a message_validator is used in the test and is not passed, this message is used as the default. If the validator uses custom assert messages, this is is replaced by the message for the first failed assert.

MessageInfo

Used if the message validation did not pass. Gives additional information about what the messages shouold contain.

Program Test Messages

These messages are used by test_program

ProgramName

Used at the beginning of testing.

GenericErrorMsg

Used if no exception-specific message is found.

EOFError

Used if there's an EOF error while trying to run the student module. The error message is written from the perspective that the most likely cause is the use of input in a way that goes against the exercise description.

ValueError

Default message for ValueError. The assumption behind this message is that inputs were not handled properly.

TypeError

Default message for TypeError. The assumption is that inputs were not converted properly.

IndexError

Default message for IndexError. The assumption is that there are split inputs and their length is not checked properly.

SystemExit

Used if the student code has a forced exit (i.e. exit, sys.exit or similar).

PrintExcLine

Used whenever there is an exception while running the program. Prints the line number and line content of the last line that was involved in the exception within the student's code file. Shows a question mark as the line number if PySenpai is unable to find any line within the student code from the stack trace of the exception.

PrintInputVector

Used to show the inputs to the student.

OutputParseError

Used if the output parser callback deems the student program's output unparseable and wants to abort the test case.

OutputPatternInfo

Used along with output parse error. Can be overridden to give the student details about what kinds of things the output parser is looking for.

PrintStudentOutput

Shows the full output of the student code if hide_output keyword argument to test_program is set to False (default is True).

CorrectResult

Message shown when the program passes validation.

IncorrectResult

Default message for failed validation. Mostly used with default validators. If the validator uses custom assert messages, this is replaced by the message for the first failed assert.

PrintStudentResult

Used after validation regardless of outcome. Shows what the student function's parsed result was.

PrintReference

Used if the student result was incorrect. Shows the reference result, i.e. what the stundet function should have produced.

AdditionalTests

Printed if there is at least one diagnosis to do.

RepeatingResult

If test_recurrence is set to True (which is the default), this message is used when the student program produces the same parsed result twice in row.

AdditionalInfo

This is used to precede messages from information functions if any have been given to the test.

CorrectMessage

If a message_validator is used in the test, this message is used if the validator passes.

IncorrectMessage

If a message_validator is used in the test and is not passed, this message is used as the default. If the validator uses custom assert messages, this is is replaced by the message for the first failed assert.

MessageInfo

Used if the message validation did not pass. Gives additional information about what the messages shouold contain.

Static Test Messages

These messages are used by static_test.

StaticTest

Used at the beginning of the test.

GenericErrorMsg

Used if no exception-specfic message is found.

AttributeError

Used if the function is not found.

OSError

Used if the source code file is unreadable.

CorrectResult

Used if there are no problems in the code.

Pylint Test Messages

These messages are used by pylint_test

LintTest

Used at the beginning of the test.

GenericErrorMsg

Used if no exception-specfic message is found.

LintSuccess

Used if the lint result passes the validator (even if there are notifications from the linter)

LintFailMessage

Used if the lint result does not pass the validator.

pylint_fail_low_score

This message is used by the default pylint score based validator instead of LintFailMessage.

LintMessagesBegin

Used before printing the individual lint messages.

LintConvention

Used for linter notifications classified as a convention violation.

LintRefactor

Used for linter notifications classified as "refactor needed".

LintWarning

Used for linter notifications classified as a warning.

LintError

Used for linter notifications classified as an error.

LintFatal

Used for linter notifications classified as fatal.
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The checking daemon is a separate multi-threaded program that is invoked whenever Lovelace needs to execute code on the command line. The most common use case is to evaluate student programs by running checking programs. When a task is sent to the checker daemon, copies of all required files are put into a temporary directory where the test will then run. The daemon also does necessary security operations to prevent malicious code from doing any actual harm.
Content graphs are objects that connect content pages to a course instance's table of contents. Content graphs have several context attributes which define how the content is linked to this particular course instance. A content graph's ordinal number and parent node affect how it is displayed in the table of contents. You can also set a deadline which will be applied to all exercises contained within the linked content page. Content graphs also define which revision of the content to show - this is used when courses are archived.
In Lovelace, content page refers to learning objects that have text content written using a markup language. All types of content pages are treated similarly inside the system and they are interchangeable. Content pages include lecture pages, and all exercise types.
  1. Description
  2. Relations
In Lovelace, course refers to an abstract root course, not any specific instance of instruction. Courses are used for tying together actual instance of instruction (called course instances in Lovelace). In that sense they are like courses in the study guide, while course instances are like courses in WebOodi. The most important attrbutes of a course are its responsible teacher and its staff group - these define which users have access to edit content that is linked to the course.
  1. Description
  2. Relations
  3. Cloning and Archiving
In Lovelace, a course instance refers to an actual instace of instruction of a course. It's comparable to a course in WebOodi. Students can enroll to a course instance. Almost everything is managed by instance - student enrollments, learning objects, student answers, feedback etc. This way teachers can easily treat each instance of instruction separately. Course instances can also be archived through a process called freezing.
Course prefixes are recommended because content page and media names in Lovelace are unique across all courses. You should decide a prefix for each course and use that for all learning objects that are not included in the course table of contents. The prefix will also make it easier to manage learning objects of multiple courses - especially for your friendly superuser who sees everyhing in the admin interface...
  1. Description
  2. Examples
Embedded content refers to learning objects that have been embedded to other learning objects through links written in the content of the parent object. Embedded content can be other content pages or media. When saving a content page, all embedded objects that are linked must exist. A link to embedded content is a reference that ties together course instance, embedded content and the parent content.
Enrollment is the method which connects students to course instances. All students taking a course should enroll to it. Enrollment is used for course scoring and (once implemented) access to course content. Enrollments are either automatically accepted, or need to be accepted through the enrollment management interface.
Lovelace has a built-in feedback system. You can attach any number of feedback questions to any content page, allowing you to get either targeted feedback about single exercises, or more general feedback about entire lecture pages. Unlike almost everything else, feedback questions are currently not owned by any particular course. However, feedback answers are always tied to the page the feedback is for, and also to the course instance where the feedback was given.
  1. Description
  2. Archiving
  3. Embedding
In Lovelace file normally refers to a media file, managed under Files in the admin site. A file has a handle, actual file contents (in both languages) and a download name. The file handle is how the file is referened throughout the system. If a media file is modified by uploading a new version of the file, all references will by default fetch the latest version. The download name is the name that is displayed as the file header when it's embedded, and also as the default name in the download dialog. Files are linked to content through reference objects - one reference per course instance.
Media files are currently stored in the public media folder along with images - they can be addressed directly via URL.
  1. Description
  2. Legacy Checkers
File upload exercises are at the heart of Lovelace. They are exercises where students return one or more code files that are then evaluated by a checking program. File upload exercises can be evaluated with anything that can be run from the Linux command line, but usually a bit more sophisticated tools should be used (e.g. PySenpai). File upload exercises have a JSON format for evaluations returned by checking programs. This evaluation can include messages, hints and highlight triggers - these will ideally help the student figure out problems with their code.
Front page of a course instance is shown at the instance's index page, below the course table of contents. Front page is linked to a course instance just like any other page, but it uses the special ordinar number of 0 which excludes it from the table of contents. Any page can act as the course front page.
Hints are messages that are displayed to students in various cases of answering incorrectly. Hints can be given upon making incorrect choices in choice-type exercises, and they can also be given after a certain number of attempts. In textfield exercises you can define any number of catches for incorrect answers, and attach hints to each. Hints are shown in a hint box in the exercise layout - this box will become visible if there is at least one hint to show.
  1. Description
  2. Archiving
  3. Embedding
Images in Lovelace are managed as media objects similar to files. They have a handle that is used for referencing, and the file itself separately. Images should be always included by using reference. This way if the image is updated, all references to it always show the latest version.
Images stored on disc are accessible directly through URL.
Lecture pages are content pages that do not have any exercise capabilities attached to them. A course instance's table of contents usually consists entirely of lecture pages. Other types of content pages (i.e. exercises) are usually embedded within lecture pages.
Legacy checker is a name for checkers that were used in previous versions of Lovelace and its predecessor Raippa. They test the student submission against a reference, comparing their outputs. If the outputs match (exactly), the submission passes. Otherwise differences in output are highlighted. It is possible to use wrapper programs to alter the outputs, or output different things (e.g. testing return values of individual functions). Legacy checkers should generally be avoided because they are very limiting and often frustrating for students. Legacy checking is still occasionally useful for comparing compiler outputs etc.
Lovelace uses its own wiki style markup for writing content. Beyond basic formatting features, the markup is also used to embed content pages and media, mark highlightable sections in text and create hover-activated term definition popups.
In Lovelace, media refers to embeddable files etc. These come in there categories: images, files and video links. Like content pages, media objects are managed by reference using handles. Unlike other types of files, media files are publicly accessible to anyone who can guess the URL.
PySenpai is a library/framework for creating file upload exercise checking programs. It uses a callback-based architecture to create a consistent and highly customizable testing process. On the one hand it provides reasonable defaults for basic checking programs making them relatively straightforward to implement. On the other hand it also supports much more complex checking programs. Currently PySenpai supports Python, C, Y86 Assembly and Matlab.
Regular expression's are a necessary evil in creating textfield and repeated template exercises. Lovelace uses Python regular expressions in single line mode.
A generator acts as a backend for repeated template exercises, and provides the random values and their corresponding answers to the frontend. Generators can be written in any programming language that can be executed on the Lovelace server. Generators need to return a JSON document by printing it to stdout.
Responsible teacher is the primary teacher in charge of a course. Certain actions are available only to responsible teachers. These actions include managing enrollments and course instances.
Lovelace uses Django Reversion to keep track of version history for all learning objects. This can be sometimes useful if you need to restore a previous version after mucking something up. However the primary purpose is to have access to historical copies of learning objects for archiving purposes. When a course instance is archived, it uses the revision attribute of all its references to set which historical version should be fetched when the learning object is shown. Student answers also include the revision number of the exercise that was active at the time of saving the answer.
Slug is the lingo word for names used in urls. Slugs are automatically generated for courses, course instances and content pages. Slugs are all-lowercase with all non-alphanumeric characters replaced with dashes. Similar naming scheme is recommended for other types of learning objects as well although they do not use generated slugs.
Staff members are basically your TAs. Staff members can see pages hidden from normal users and they can edit and create content (within the confines of the courses they have been assigned to). They can also view answer statistics and evaluate student answers in manually evaluated exercises. Staff members are assigned to courses via staff group.
Lovelace has answer statistics for all exercises. Statistics are collected per instance, and allow you to review how many times an exercise has been answered, what's the success rate etc. All of this can be helpful in identifying where students either have difficulties, or the exercise itself is badly designed. For some types of exercises, there's also more detailed information about answers that have been given. Statistics can be accessed from the left hand toolbox for each exercise.
Teacher toolbox is located on the left hand side of each exercise. It has options to view statistcs, view feedback about the exercise and edit the exercise. For file upload exercises there is also an option to download all answers as a zip file. Do note that this takes some time.
  1. Description
  2. Examples
Terms are keywords that are linked to descriptions within your course. They will be collected into the course term bank, and the keyword can also be used to make term hint popups on any content page. Terms can include multiple tabs and links to pages that are relevant to the term. For instance, this term has a tab for examples, and a link to the page about terms.
Textfield exercises are exercises where the student gives their answer by writing into a text box. This answer is evaluated against predefined answers that can be either correct (accepting the exercise) or incorrect (giving a related hint). Almost always these answers are defined as regular expressions - exact matching is simply far too strict.
  1. Description
  2. Markup
  3. Triggering
Triggerable highlights can be used in content pages to mark passages that can be highlighted by triggers from file upload exercise evaluation responses. When a highlight is triggered the passage will be highlighted. This feature is useful for drawing student attention to things they may have missed. Exercises can trigger highlights in their own description, or in their parent page. It is usually a good idea to use exercise specific prefixes for highlight trigger names.