# Lovelace

Termbank
1. A
1. Abstraction
2. Alias
3. Argument
4. Array
2. B
1. Binary code file
2. Binary number
3. Bit
4. Bitwise negation
5. Bitwise operation
6. Byte
3. C
1. C library
2. C-function
3. C-variable
4. Character
5. Code block
6. Comment
7. Compiler
8. Complement
9. Conditional statement
10. Conditional structure
11. Control structure
4. D
1. Data structure
2. Duck typing
5. E
1. Error message
2. Exception
6. F
1. Flag
2. Float
7. H
8. I
1. Immutable
2. Initialization
3. Instruction
4. Integer
5. Interpreter
6. Introduction
7. Iteroitava
9. K
1. Keyword
10. L
1. Library
2. Logical operation
11. M
1. Machine language
2. Macro
3. Main function
4. Memory
5. Method
12. O
1. Object
2. Optimization
13. P
1. Parameter
2. Placeholder
3. Pointer
4. Precompiler
5. Precompiler directive
6. Prototype
7. Python console
8. Python format
9. Python function
10. Python import
11. Python list
12. Python main program
13. Python variable
14. Python-for
15. Pääfunktio
16. printf
14. R
1. Resource
2. Return value
15. S
1. Statement
2. Static typing
3. String
4. Syntax
16. T
1. Terminal
2. Type
3. Typecast
17. U
1. Unsigned
18. V
1. Value
19. W
1. Warning
2. while
Completed: / exercises

# The first C program¶

Refer to the course material about the first program in the C language. e.g. Kernigham & Ritchie (K&R) Chapter 1.
There are some exercises in the Finnish material that appear here shortly. Sorry for the inconvenience.
Under construction. More coming up soon.

# The basic blocks of C programming¶

As was promised before, the course proceeds in about the same order as the Elementary Programming course. At least as much as it is possible with C. This time we will refine two basic pieces of programming:
variables
and
functions
. Without them it is rather difficult to do any programming, especially in C, which does not even have a main program.

## A frame in the shape of C¶

Learning objectives: After this portion you will know how to write a C program that can be compiled and executed.

### Compulsory symbols¶

Unlike in Python, where a code file may contain just a single line of code that does something, C requires certain basic things. At the end of the previous piece of material there was an example of a very simple C program:
#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
printf("aasisvengaa!\n");
return 0;
}

The actual code to be executed still is only one line, but around it has appeared this and that. We got a preparatory look at these in the previous material. The #-symbol at the beginning does not, by the way, make a line a
comment
(// does!). All the lines that begin with # are instead lines meant for the
precompiler
to handle. In short, a precompiler is a part of the
compiler
that format the code file according to the
directives
, the lines marked with the #-symbol at their beginning. At this point we will only handle the directive called include, which resembles Python's
import command
. In C include is required at the beginning of learning the language, because, unlike Python, C does not have a built-in print function - it has to be separately introduced by adding the
library
stdio (Standard Input/Output), which has it included.
At the end of the names of libraries is .h, which is short for header. This .h-file is a library's
, which includes the introductions of the functions, constants and possible variables of the library. The actual code of the library is in the stdio.c file. We usually will not be seeing it, since compilers typically deliver the standard libraries as compiled binary files. There will be more about header files later on the course. While perusing the code you might notice one difference to the import of Python: when printf function is called, it is not written stdio.printf, just printf. In C include works actually like Python's from moduuli import * and separate namespaces are not used. This means you need to be more careful with naming your functions than usually.
The library used here, stdio, includes functions that are related to printing and reading input. At this point it will be used in practically every program. Other at this point or soon relevant libraries are at least math and stdlib. When you need these they will be introduced to you so that you know when and how to use them. C does not have a similar friendly documentation base as Python, so we recommend you either use a C book or the ”UTFG” method (just google everything).
Another notable difference is that you can not make a C program without
functions
- the main program like in Python does not exist. Instead a
main function
does, and as default is main and its default return value is int. The return value's type is int, because the program returns at its end a code, that tells about how it ended - usually only operating systems are interested in this value. We will go deeper within the inner workings of a C function in this material, but not yet. At this point it is enough that you get what this mysterious int main() {-line is. It defines the main function, which does not have
parameters
. At the end of the line the curved bracket is the beginning of a statement block. All the things between this and the closing curly bracket are inside the function.

## Variables' metamorphosis¶

Learning objectives: After this portion you will have mastered the basics of the variables in C. This includes understanding and defining the types of variables, and some sort of understanding in which way variables reside within the memory of a computer. We will also take a look at how variables can be printed and how their types can be changed.

### Refreshing memories¶

Just a reminder about what was said about the
variables of Python
in Elementary Programming before we delve into the inner workings of
C's variables
. The basic idea was to connect the name appearing in the program to the value inside the computer's
memory
. This familiar animation might work as a fine refresher:
So, that was Python, about which was nagged how a
variable
is a reference to a
value
and does not actually contain a value. This is demonstrated in the animation at y = x, where both of the variables point at the same value. It was possible to show this even in the Python interpreter using id function:
>>> a = 5
>>> id(a)
10894208
>>> b = a
>>> id(b)
10894208

Here can be seen how a and b are not identical only by their value, they are the same
object
. This does not have much to do with the basic types of variables, like numbers and strings, because these
data types
are
immutable
in Python. With
lists
you could instead see actual repercussions:
>>> a = [1, 2, 3]
>>> b = a
>>> b.append(4)
>>> a
[1, 2, 3, 4]

This behaviour had at least one typical application: the functions were given lists that the function edited but did not return. They were not returned, because that was not necessary - the edited list was the same list the function had been given. As an example of this could work, for example, the collection program example's lisaa function:
def lisaa(kokoelma):
print("Täytä lisättävän levyn tiedot. Jätä levyn nimi tyhjäksi lopettaaksesi")
while True:
levy = input("Levyn nimi: ")
if not levy:
break

kokoelma.append({
"artisti": input("Artistin nimi: "),
"albumi": levy,
"n": kysy_luku("Kappaleiden lukumäärä: "),
"kesto": kysy_aika("Kesto: "),
"vuosi": kysy_luku("Julkaisuvuosi: ")
})


### Comparing memories¶

In C
variables
are tied to their values in the sence that you could say the variable contains a value - the variable is a name the programmer has set for the area of the
memory
the value is located in. When a new variable is created, a new area of memory is reserved for it. Let us return back to this after a moment, but let us watch an animation about it before we continue.
Another way C's variables differ clearly from Python's is how they have a separately defined
type
. Type is defined in the
introduction
of the variable, which is always in the form type_of_the_variable variable_name.
Python does not use introduction at all, since the variables are created on the fly when some value is set for them. In C the variables always have to be introduced, reserved memory for them, before they can be used. At the introduction a value can be set for the variable. That is called
initializing
.
These both are proper introductions:
int i;
int x = 5;

What happens if you do not initialize a variable? Usually you get very random results.

### Types everywhere¶

In C the types of the variables play a bigger part than in Python. C has more basic types. Above you can see an
integer
type int. Other integer types of C are short and long. These types also have modifiers signed or unsigned which can determine whether the variable can be negative or not, as a default option all numbers are positive integers, though. For characters there is the variable type char, which is actually an integer variable, and that will be explained later. Unlike in Python, in C there is no
string
of characters variable type. We will later return to how to handle strings.
Also
floating point numbers
exist in C, and they work in a similar manner as they do in Python. Not surprisingly, also they are just bits in the memory, they are just interpreted in a different manner. In C there are two float types, float and double. It is not relevant to this course to understand how floating point numbers act within memory, but it is good to know that they never are absolutely exact values, just approximates. We will return to variables and floating point number systems later.
Now that we know something about variable types, we can take on some exercises so that we will remember something about them later.

#### Defining variables - A presentation about variables¶

Let's begin from the simplest ones. Your job is to introduce three variables:
• unsigned small integer N
• floating point number keskipituus
• character luokitus
Write the introductions in the box below.
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#### Defining variables - At the beginning there was...¶

Let's continue the exercises. Now your job is to introduce and initialize variables. This is the most recommended way of introduce variables, because it ensures that all the variables have some sort of sensible value. The required variables are:
• unsigned big integer "counter" with initial value 0
• integer "sum" with initial value 0
Write the definig lines in the box below.
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### Types in print out¶

Among all the other fun things, the
types
of
variables
are also related to print out. In C the compiler has to be told which type we want to print. To not make things too simple, we can print out variables as different types than they have been introduced as. At this point you only need to know that in C you give the printing function, printf, as parameters the variables to print and descriptions of how to print them. There's an example of this below.
printf("%d\n", x);

In short (we will get back to this later), in the printf call above the value of the variable x is printed on screen as an integer and right after it a newline character. The first parameter of the function is a string, which says how to print, in this case "%d\n". Now %+letter characters are the same as the
placeholders
in Python's
format
method and after that the newline character \n. Actually Python does also have similar syntax - format is only a bit more modern and versatile way of doing the same thing. In the place of every placeholder in the
printf
function there will be one of the
arguments
after the string in the given order. In the example in the place of %d will be the value of the variable x in the print out. Unlike in Python, where you could use an empty place holder like "You gave a number {}".format(luku), in C the types of placeholders are tied to the types of the variables. Here is a list of the most commonly used ones on this course:
 placeholder variable type %d int %i int %hi short %li long %u unsigned int %hu unsigned short %lu unsigned long %f float, double %c char %s char[]
In addition to these, the standard includers also others you will see in the material, but are not strictforwardly related to one variable type. For example:
 placeholder meaning %x prints the value of the variable in hexadecimal format

#### Class C of the Basic Printing School¶

Printing is not actually the most important thing on this course, but it is good to be able to handle the basics of it also. In this exercise you mainly practice choosing the right
placeholder
based on the type of the variable. The
compiler
usually returns
warning messages
about incorrect placeholders, but it still compiles the program through since it can be executed - the results just may be unexpected.
Your task is to pick the piece of code below and add print outs so that each defined variable's contents are printed on their own line. Unlike Python's printf function, C's printf function does not automatically print line break at the end, so you have to add it there yourself - you do not need to add anything else to the print outs.
tkj-tulostusperuskoulu-c
int main() {
unsigned long n = 4000;
unsigned short laskuri = 0;
char luokka = 'C';
float keskiarvo = 0.0;
}

Return the code file below. The code has to compile without warnings.
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## Functions' metamorphosis¶

Learning objectives: In this portion we will handle how to define functions in C and what differences they have with Python functions (typed parameters and return values). Prototype is introduced as a new concept.

### Danger: Functions devour types!¶

On the base level defining and using
C function
do not differ from defining and using
Python function
. Function is defined on its own definition line, on which is presented the function's name and
parameters
, and the code of the function follows. The syntax is somewhat different: on the definition line there is no separate keyword like Python's def. Instead of it the definition of the function looks similar to a variable's definition - the brackets after the name tell us that it is a function instead of a variable:
int main() {
return 0;
}

Instead of the def-keyword there is a
variable type
. This type defines what type the function's
return value
is. The main function's retun value type is int, because it should return a status code of whether the function's execution went well or not. At the end of the function should usually be return 0;, which says that everything went well. In an error situation the return value is some other number, but we do not need to know much about them yet - right now the most important thing is to remember that there should be that return line at the end of the main function. In the same way the parameters should be defined to have a type:
float  calculate_distance(float speed, float time) {
return speed * time;
}

If the parameters in the function call are of a wrong type, the
compiler
will return an error message. Function also has to return a value that is of the type it was defined to have - otherwise you get another compiling error. A function that is not meant to return anything can be defined to have the return type void:
void print_instructions() {
printf("This program does not do anything useful.");
}

The most notable functional difference between C functions and Python functions is that C functions can have only one return value. If you want to return more than one value, you need to use references or the variables can be packed in a
data structure
. We will get back to this later.

### Prototypes¶

In C also functions have to be introduced before using them.
Prototype
is function's introduction and tells the
compiler
that the program should include a function with this name that takes these types of variables as parameters and returns that type of value.
Prototypes sort of form a table of contents of the functions that appear in the program. If the C program consists of several different code modules, each of the shared functions has to be introduced in their header files so that the table of contents would include all of them. The header file is needed for the preprocessor, because otherwise other modules do not know anything about what functions will be in the other modules. You can include the headerfiles for the preprocessor with the #include command. You will learn more about these later.
Naturally you can write the whole function in the code before you use it. That way the introduction happens nicely at the same time, except that it will not be seen outside the module unless it is in the header file already.
The defining line for the prototype is identical to the actual function's defining line:
int calculate_sum(int a, int b);

int calculate_sum(int a, int b) {
return a + b;
}

Usually adding prototypes to the code does not require anything else besides copying the definitions of the functions to the beginning of the code (below the
precompiler's
instructions). Prototypes can also be located in a separate
, which will be explained more thoroughly later. Using prototypes on this course is not optional - the evaluator's compiler has been instructed to produce an
error message
if prototypes are missing.
Note that the main function does not require a prototype, but it has to be named main.

#### C-class energetic function¶

Let's write an energetic function as a warm up exercise. May the function be called calculate_kinetic_energy. As input it takes two float parameters, the velocity and mass of an object. The function calculates the kinetic energy of the object and returns it as a floating point number. You can use the primary school strategy for calculating the exponentiations (velocity*velocity). Use the double data type for presenting the floating point numbers!
Write a code file where this function is defined. Remember the prototype!
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?
Abstraction is a process through which raw machine language instructions are "hidden" underneath the statements of a higher level programming language. Abstraction level determines how extensive the hiding is - the higher the abstraction level, the more difficult it is to exactly say how a complex statement will be turned into machine language instructions. For instance, the abstraction level of Python is much higher than that of C (in fact, Python has been made with C).
Alias is a directive for the precompiler that substitus a string with another string whenever encountered. In it's basic form it's comparable to the replace operation in a text editor. Aliases are define with the #define directeve, e.g. #define PI 3.1416
Argument is the name for values that are given to functions when they are called. Arguments are stored into parameters when inside the function, although in C both sides are often called just arguments. For example in printf("%c", character); there are two arguments: "%c" format template and the contents of the character variable.
Array is a common structure in programming languages that contains multiple values of (usually) the same type. Arrays in C are static - their size must be defined when they are introduced and it cannot change. C arrays can only contain values of one type (also defined when introduced).
Binary code file is a file that contains machine language instructions in binary format. They are meant to be read only by machines. Typically if you attempt to open a binary file in a text editor, you'll see just a mess of random characters as the editor is attempting to decode the bits into characters. Most editors will also warn that the file is binary.
Binary number is a number made of bits, i.e. digits 0 and 1. This makes it a base 2 number system.
A bit is the smallest unit of information. It can have exactly two values: 0 and 1. Inside the computer everything happens with bits. Typically the memory contains bitstrings that are made of multiple bits.
Bitwise negation is an operation where each bit of a binary number is negated so that zeros become ones and vice versa. The operator is ~.
Bitwise operations are a class of operations with the common feature that they manipulate individual bits. For example bitwise negation reverses each bit. Some operations take place between two binary values so that bits in the same position affect each other. These operations include and (&), or (|) and xor (^). There's also shift operations (<< and >>) where the bits of one binary number are shifted to the left or right N steps.
Byte is the size of one memory slot - typically 8 bits. It is the smallest unit of information that can be addressed from the computer's memory. The sizes of variable types are defined as bytes.
External code in C is placed in libraries from which they can be taken to use with the #include directive. C has its own standard libraries, and other libraries can also be included. However any non-standard libraries must be declared to the compiler. Typically a library is made of its source code file (.c) and header file (.h) which includes function prototypes etc.
Functions in C are more static than their Python counterparts. A function in C can only have ne return value and its type must be predefined. Likewise the types of all parameers must be defined. When a function is called, the values of arguments are copied into memory reserved for the function parameters. Therefore functions always handle values that are separate from the values handled by the coe that called them.
C variables are statically typed, which means their type is defined as the variable is introduced. In addition, C variables are tied to their memory area. The type of a variable cannot be changed.
Character is a single character, referred in C as char. It can be interpreted as an ASCII character but can also be used as an integer as it is the smallest integer that can be stored in memory. It's exactly 1 byte. A character is marked with single quotes, e.g. 'c'.
Code block is a group of code lines that are in the same context. For instance, in a conditional structure each condtion contains its own code block. Likewise the contents of a function are in their own code block. Code blocks can contain other code blocks. Python uses indentation to separate code blocks from each other. C uses curly braces to mark the beginning and end of a code block.
Comments are text in code files that are not part of the program. Each language has its own way of marking comments. Python uses the # character, C the more standard //. In C it's also possible to mark multiple lines as comments by placing them between /* and */.
A compiler is a program that transforms C source code into a binary file containing machine language instructions that can be executed by the computer's processor. The compiler also examines the source code and informs the user about any errors or potential issues in the code (warnings). The compiler's behavior can be altered with numerous flags.
Complement is a way to represent negative numbers, used typically in computers. The sign of a number is changed by flipping all its bits. In two's complement which is used in this course, 1 is added to the result after flipping.
Conditional statement is (usually) a line of code that defined a single condition, followed by a code block delimited by curly braces that is entered if the condition evaluates as true. Conditional statements are if statements that can also be present with the else keyword as else if. A set of conditional statements linked together by else keywords are called conditional structures.
Conditional structure is a control structure consisting of one or more conditional statements. Most contrl structures contain at least two branches: if and else. Between these two there can also be any number of else if statements. It is however also possible to have just a single if statement. Each branch in a conditional structure cotains executable code enclosed within a block. Only one branch of the structure is ever entered - with overlapping conditions the first one that matches is selected.
Control structures are code structures that somehow alter the program's control flow. Conditional structures and loops belong to this category. Exception handling can also be considered as a form of control structure.
Data structure is a comman name for collection that contain multiple values. In Python these include lists, tuples and dictionaries. In C the most common data structures are arrays and structs.
Python's way of treating variable values is called dynamic typing aka duck typing. The latter comes from the saying "if it swims like a duck, walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, it is a duck". In other words, the validity of a value is determined by its properties in a case-by-case fashion rather than its type.
An error message is given by the computer when something goes wrong while running or compiling a program. Typically it contains information about the problem that was encountered and its location in the source code.
An exception is what happens when a program encounters an error. Exceptions have type (e.g. TypeError) that can be used in exception handling within the program, and also as information when debugging. Typically exceptions also include textual description of the problem.
Flags are used when executing programs from the command line interface. Flags are options that define how the program behaves. Usually a flag is a single character prefixed with a single dash (e.g. -o) or a word (or multiple words connected with dashes) prefixed with two dashes (e.g. --system. Some flags are Boolean flags which means they are either on (if present) or off (if not present). Other flags take a parameter which is typically put after the flag separated either by a space or = character (e.g. -o hemulen.exe.
Floating point numbers are an approximation of decimal numbers that are used by computers. Due to their archicture computers aren't able to process real decimal numbers, so they use floats instead. Sometimes the imprecision of floats can cause rounding errors - this is good to keep in mind. In C there are two kinds of floating point numbers: float and double, where the latter has twice the number of bits.
Header files use the .h extension, and they contain the headers (function prototypes, type definitions etc.) for a .c file with the same name.
Headers in C are used to indicate what is in the code file. This includes things like function prototypes. Other typical content for headers are definition of types (structs etc.) and constants. Headers can be at the beginning of the code file, but more often - especially for libraries - they are in placed in a separate header (.h) file.
Hexadecimal numbers are base 16 numbers that are used particularly to represent memory addresses and the binary contents of memory. A hexadecimal number is typically prefixed with 0x. They use the letters A-F to represent digits 10 to 15. Hexadecimals are used because each digit represents exactly 4 bits which makes transformation to binary and back easy.
In Python objects were categorized into mutable and immutable values. An immutable value cannot have its contents changed - any operations that seemingly alter the object actually create an altered copy in a new memory location. For instance strings are immutable in Python. In C this categorization is not needed because the relationship of variables and memory is tighter - the same variable addresses the same area of memory for the duration of its existence.
When a variable is given its initial value in code, the process is called initialization. A typical example is the initialization of a number to zero. Initialization can be done alongside with introduction: int counter = 0; or separately. If a variable has not been initialized, its content is whatever was left there by the previous owner of the memory area.
Instruction set defines what instructions the processor is capable of. These instructions form the machine language of the processor architecture.
Integers themselves are probably familiar at this point. However in C there's many kinds of integers. Integer types are distinguished by their size in bits and whether they are signed or not. As a given number of bits can represent up to (2 ^ n) different integers, the maximum value for a signed integer is (2 * (n - 1))
Python interpreter is a program that transforms Python code into machine language instructions at runtime.
The moment a variable's existence is announed for the first is called introduction. When introduced, a variable's type and name must be defined, e.g. int number;. When a variable is introduced, memory is reserved for it even though nothing is written there yet - whatever was in the memory previously is still there. For this reason it's often a good idea to initialize variables when introducing them.
Iteroitava objekti on sellainen, jonka voi antaa silmukalle läpikäytäväksi (Pythonissa for-silmukalle). Tähän joukkoon kuuluvat yleisimpinä listat, merkkijonot ja generaattorit. C:ssä ei ole silmukkaa, joka vastaisi Pythonin for-silmukan toimintaa, joten taulukoiden yms. läpikäynti tehdään indeksiä kasvattavilla silmukoilla.
Keywords are words in programming languages that have been reserved. Good text editors generally use a different formatting for keywords (e.g. bold). Usually keywords are protected and their names cannot be used for variables. Typical keywords include if and else that are used in control structures. In a way keywords are part of the programming language's grammar.
A library is typically a toolbox of functions around a single purpose. Libraries are taken to use with the include directive. If a library is not part of the C standard library, its use must also be told to the compiler.
Logical operation refers to Boole's algebra, dealing with truth values. Typical logical operations are not, and, or which are often used in conditional statements. C also uses bitwise logical operations that work in the same way but affect each bit separately.
Machine language is made of instructions understood by the processor. Machine language is often called Assembly and it is the lowest level where it's reasonable for humans to give instructions to computers. Machine language is used at the latter part of this course - students taking the introduction part do not need to learn it.
Macro is an alias that defines a certain keyword to be replaced by a piece of code. When used well, macros can create more readable code. However, often the opposite is true. Using macros is not recommended in this course, you should just be able to recognize one when you see it.
In C the main function is the starting point when the program is run. The command line arguments of the program are passed on to the main function (although they do not have to be received), and its return value type is int. At its shortest a main function can defined as int main().
When programs are run, all their data is stored in the computer's memory. The memory consists of memory slots with an address and contents. All slots are of equal size - if an instance of data is larger, a continuous area of multiple memory slots is reserved.
Method is a function that belongs to an object, often used by the object to manipulate itself. When calling a method, the object is put before the method: values.sort().
Object is common terminology in Python. Everything in Python is treated as objects - this means that everything can be referenced by a variable (e.g. you can use a variable to refer to a function). Objects are typically used in object-oriented languages. C is not one.
Optimization means improving the performance of code, typically by reducing the time it takes to run the code or its memory usage. The most important thing to understand about opimization is that it should not be done unless it's needed. Optimization should only be considered once the code is running too slowly or doesn't fit into memory. Optimization should also not be done blindly. It's important to profile the code and only optimize the parts that are most wasteful.
A parameter is a variable defined alongside with a function. Parameters receive the values of the function's arguments when it's called. This differentation between parameters and arguments is not always used, sometimes both ends of the value transfer are called arguments.
Placeholders are used in string formatting to mark a place where a value from e.g. a variable will be placed. In Python we used curly braces to mark formatting placeholders. In C the % character is used which is followed by definitions, where the type of the value is mandatory. For instance "%c" can only receive a char type variable.
Pointers in C are special variables. A pointer contains a memory address of the memory location where the actual data value is located. In a sense they work like Python variables. A variable can be defined as a pointer by postfixing its type with * when it's being introduced, e.g. int* value_ptr; creates a pointer to an integer. The contents of the memory address can be fetched by prefixing the variable name with * (e.g. *value_ptr. On the other hand, the address of a memory adress can be fetched by prefixing a variable name with &, (e.g. &value.
The C precompiler is an apparatus that goes through all the precompiler directives in the code before the program is actually compiled. These directives include statements which add the source code of the included libraries into the program, and define directives that can define constant values (aliases) and macros.
Directives are instructions that are addressed at the precompiler. They are executed and removed from the code before the actual compilation. Directives start with the # character. The most common one is include which takes a library into use. Another common one is define, which is used e.g. to create constant values.
Prototype defines a function's signature - the type of its return value, its name and all the arguments. A prototype is separate from the actual function definition. It's just a promise that the function that matches the prototype will be found in the code file. Prototypes are introduced at the beginning of the file or in a separate header file. In common cases the prototype definition is the same as the line that actually starts the function introduction.
Interactive interpreter or Python console is a program where users can write Python code lines. It's called interactive because each code line is executed after its been fully written, and the interpreter shows the return value (if any).
The format method of string in Python is a powerful way to include variable values into printable text. The string can use placeholders to indicate where the format method's arguments are placed.
Python functions can have optional parameters that have a given default value. In Python the values of arguments in a function call are transferred to function parameters through reference, which means that the values are the same even though they may have different names. Python functions can have multiple return values.
In Python the import statement is used for bringing in modules/libraries - either built-in ones, thrid party modules or other parts of the same application. In Python the names from the imported module's namespace are accessible through the module name (e.g. math.sin). In C libraries are taken to use with include, and unlike Python import it brings the library's namespace into the program's global namespace.
Python lists were discovered to be extremely effective tools in Elementary Programming. A Python list is an ordered collection of values. Its size is dynamic (i.e. can be changed during execution) and it can include any values - even mixed types. Lists can also include other lists etc.
In Python main program is the part of code that is executed when the program is started. Usually the main program is at the end of the code file and most of the time under if __name__ == "__main__": if statement. In C there is no main program as such, code execution starts with the main function instead.
In Python a variable is a reference to a value, a connection between the variable's name in code and the actual data in memory. In Python variables have no type but their values do. The validity of a value is tested case by case when code is executed. In these ways they are different from C variables, and in truth Python variables are closer to C pointers.
Pythonin for-silmukka vastaa toiminnaltaan useimmissa kielissä olevaa foreach-silmukkaa. Se käy läpi sekvenssin -esim. listan - jäsen kerrallaan, ottaen kulloinkin käsittelyssä olevan jäsenen talteen silmukkamuuttujaan. Silmukka loppuu, kun iteroitava sekvenssi päättyy.
Pääfunktio on C:ssä ohjelman aloituspiste ja se korvaa Pythonista tutun pääohjelman. Oletuksena pääfunktion nimi on main ja se määritellään yksinkertaisimmillaan int main().
Resource referes to the processing power, memory, peripheral devices etc. that are availlable in the device. It includes all the limitations within which programs can be executed and therefore defines what is possible with program code. On a desktop PC resources are - for a programmer student - almost limitless, but on embedded devices resources are much more scarce.
Return value is what a function returns when its execution ends. In C functions can only have one return value, while in Python there can be multiple. When reading code, return value can be understood as something that replaces the function call after the function has been executed.
A statement is a generic name for a single executable set of instructions - usually one line of code.
C uses static typing This means that the type of variables is defined as they are created, and values of different types cannot be assigned to them. The validity of a value is determined by its type (usually done by the compiler). Python on the other hand uses dynamic typing aka.duck typing.
In Python all text is handled as strings and it has no type for single characters. However in C there are no strings at all - there's only character arrays. A character array can be defined like a string however, e.g. char animal[7] = "donkey"; where the number is the size of the array + 1. The +1 is neede because the string must have space for the null terminator '\0' which is automatically added to the end of the "string".
Syntax is the grammar of a programming language. If a text file does not follow the syntax of code, it cannot be executed as code, or in the case of C, it cannot be compiled.
Terminal, command line interface, command line prompt etc. are different names to the text-based interface of the operating system. In Windows you can start the command line prompt by typing md to the Run... window (Win+R). Command line is used to give text-based commands to the operating system.
The data in a computer's memory is just bits, but variables have type. Type defines how the bits in memory should be interpreted. It also defines how many bits are required to store a value of the type. Types are for instance int, float and char.
Typecast is an operation where a variable is transformed to another type. In the elementary course this was primarily done with int and float functions. In C typecast is marked a bit differently: floating = (float) integer}. It's also noteworthy that the result must be stored in a variable that is the proper type. it is not possible to change the type of an existing variable.
Unsigned integer is a an integer type where all values are interpreted as positive. Since sign bit is not needed, unsigned integers can represent twice as large numbers as signed integers of the same size. An integer can be introduced as unsigned by using the unsigend keyword, e.g. unsigned int counter;.
In the elementary programming course we used the term value to refer to all kinds of values handled by programs be it variables, statement results or anything. In short, a value is data in the computer's memory that can be referenced by variables. In C the relationship between a variable and its value is tighter as variables are strictly tied to the memory area where its value is stored.
A warning is a notification that while executing or - in this course particularly - compiling it, something suspicious was encountered. The program may still work, but parts of it may exhibit incorrect behavior. In general all warnings should be fixed to make the program stable.
One way to print stuff in C is the printf function, which closely resembles Python's print function. It is given a printable string along with values that will be formatted into the string if placeholders are used. Unlike Python, C's printf doesn't automatically add a newline at the end. Therefore adding \n at the end is usually needed.
Out of loops, while is based on repetition through checking a condition - the code block inside the loop is repeated until the loop's condition is false. The condition is defined similarly to conditional statements, e.g. while (sum < 21).